Mongolia is a vast country- 1.566.000sq.km in area, about four times the size of Germany and is located in North-Central Asia.
It is one of the highest countries in the world with an average altitude of 1,580 meters. Mongolia's surface form is very diverse, including high mountains, boundless steppes, vast valleys, and sand in the Gobi desert. The southern third of the country is dominated by the barren Gobi Desert while Central Mongolia is characterized by the grassy steppe ecosystems. About 10% of the country is covered in forests which stretches on for 2000 km from east to west.
Population of Mongolia
This landlocked country between Russia and China has the population of 2.6 million. More than half of these people live as nomads outside the urban centers.
Population growth rate is 1.45%, life expectancy at birth is 61.8 years and the population density is 1.5 persons per square kilometer, making Mongolia one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world.
The Halh Mongols are the biggest ethnic group (85%). The most well-known minorities are Kazakhs 5%, Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 1.8%, Buriad 1.8%, Dariganga 1.5%, Zahchin 1.2%, and Urianhai 1.0 %.
Mongolia is a very sunny country, mostly with considerable sunshine 250 days a year. Annual precipitation level is 200-220 millimeters and in the northern part of the country it is 300-400 millimeters, but is less than 100 millimeters in the southern part. Mongolia is a country with relatively low humidity of air.
In the coldest month of the year, January, the air temperature sometimes falls to -50C. For the warmest month , July, the air temperature should go up to +40C. The daily temperature fluctuation reaches +30C. The annual average temperature is “-’’ in the northern part of the country and ‘’+’’ in the south. The duration of the cold winter is 180 days. The atmospheric pressure is low (844hPa) in the eastern part of the country and high in the western part.